Stratford Medical Clinics - Respiratory Diseases are a term which encompasses various pathological conditions that affect the tissues and organs that make the gas exchange possible. The conditions that fit under the designation of a respiratory disease, consist of problems with the upper respiratory tract, bronchi, trachea, bronchioles, pleura, pleural cavity, alveoli in addition to the muscles and nerves which are responsible for breathing. Respiratory diseases vary from self-limiting and mild like the common cold for example, to life-threatening conditions like lung cancer, pulmonary embolism, and bacterial pneumonia.
Pulmonology is the study of respiratory disease and a medical doctor specializing in this field in particular is known as a pulmonologist. Various names used for this particular medical practitioner consist of: a thoracic medicine specialist, a respiratory medicine specialist, a chest medicine expert and a respirologist.
There are many classifications utilized for the several respiratory diseases; they can be classed by the tissue or organ involved or can be classed by the pattern and type of associated signs and symptoms, or based on the etiology or cause of the disease.
Inflammatory Lung Disease
This specific disease, that consists of emphysema, acute respiratory distress syndrome, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder and cystic fibrosis, are characterized by a high neutrophil count.
A common reason for acute respiratory disease is an allergic response because of exposure to various agents and foods. There are several really common allergens found in certain foods like for example lemon, radish, sea foods like for instance some prawns and fatty fish, peanuts, bananas, ice creams and dairy, pomegranates, lemon, arrowroot, berries and lady's finger. Climate can also affect several people because sandy and dusty weather conditions during summertime can make the quality of air poor for people who are sensitive.
Obstructive Lung Diseases
This category of lung diseases are where the airways comprising the alveoli, bronchi and bronchioles become reduced in volume or else have the free flow of gas impeded, thus making it harder to move air into and out of the lungs.
COPD or Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Asthma is an example of COPD. In this obstructive lung disease, the airways become damaged and this causes them to narrow.
Restrictive Lung Diseases or Interstitial Lung Diseases
Restrictive Lung Diseases are a category of respiratory disease that is characterized by a loss of lung compliance. These RLD's can lead to incomplete lung expansion and increased lung stiffness. IRDS or likewise called Infant Respiratory Distress Syndrome is an example.
Respiratory Tract Infections
Infections can affect whatever part of the respiratory system. They are traditionally divided into lower respiratory tract infections and upper respiratory tract infections.
Upper Respiratory Tract Infection
The most common type of upper respiratory infection is the common cold. Infections of the upper respiratory tract specific organs can include pharyngitis, tonsillitis, sinusitis, laryngitis and otitis media are likewise in this category.
Lower Respiratory Tract Infection
Pneumonia is the most common lower respiratory tract infection. It is a lung infection normally due to bacteria, normally Streptococcus within the Western world. Tuberculosis is a large cause of pneumonia all around the globe. Different fungi and viruses can cause pneumonia also, like for example pneumocystis pneumonia and acute respiratory syndrome.
Respiratory tumours are either malignant or benign.
Pleural Cavity Diseases
Diseases of the pleural cavity includes emphysema and mesothelioma. A collection of fluid within the pleural cavity is referred to as a pleural effusion. This can be caused by conditions such as congestive heart failure and cirrhosis, as the fluid from the bloodstream shifts into the pleural cavity. Diseases here can also take place from pleura inflammation, TB, mesothelioma, pulmonary embolism and various conditions.
A hole in the pleura which covers the lung and permits air inside the lung to escape into the pleural cavity is known as a pneumothorax. In this instance, the affected lung collapses like a balloon which is inflated. A tension pneumothorax is a severe form of this where the air cannot escape in the pleural cavity and the pressure eventually gets bigger compressing the heart and blood vessels, causing a dangerous life-threatening situation.
Pulmonary Vascular Diseases
Pulmonary Vascular Diseases are certain conditions which affect the pulmonary flow. Examples of these diseases consist of: Pulmonary arterial hypertension, Pulmonary hemorrhage, Pulmonary edema and Pulmonary embolism.
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